As the Khalifa. Hazrat Usman followed the sunnah of the Ho Prophetrh°h and the practice followed by the first and the second Khalifas.(Ie continued the administrative arrangements made by Hazrat Umar, though he regrouped some of the provinces and created new provinces for the newly conquered territories. The Majlis-e-Shoora or council of consultation was maintained and all affairs of the State were settled by this Council. He started the practice of holding periodic conferences of the district authorities in order to keep himself informed of the conditions in the country. Hazrat Usman also used to hear public complaints after Friday prayers.
Hazrat Usman relaxed most of the restrictions that had been imposed on the people by Hazrat Umar. He allowed the Arabs to acquire agricultural lands in the conquered territories. The Arabs purchased these lands and exchanged them with lands in Arabia. Hazrat Usman made extensions to the Holy Prophet’s”””‘ mosque in Madinah and had new mosques constructed at various places. He also ordered the construction of inns, border outposts and guest houses. He made arrangements for the supply of drinking water to travelers by getting wells sunk by the sides of highways and roads. A dam was also built to protect Madinah from floods. During his Khilafat for the first time a fleet of nearly five hundred ships was built to fight with the Greeks on the Mediterranean Sea. More land was set apart as grazing ground for horses. Hazrat Usman raised the salaries of the officers and the armed forces. He also increased the allowances paid to the people by 25%. He took steps for the propagation of Islam and is said to have sent religious teachers to India to spread Islam.
MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS AS A CALIPH
• To Uthman belongs the honour of uniting the Muslim community on a standard text of the Holy Quran for all times. He appointed a commission, and directed it towards making copies of the standardised Holy Quran which helped to achieve uniformity in dialect.
•Islamic rule further expanded during his reign, and the vast territories of North Africa, Spain, Rhodes and Cyprus were added to the Muslim empire.
•It was during Uthman’s reign that the Muslims first launched a naval warfare. With the permission of Uthman, Muawiya built a strong naval fleet to invade an island of the Romans. Such a naval fleet was the first of its kind in the history of Islam.
•Under Uthman the citizens became economically more prosperous and invested heavily in the construction of new buildings. Public works such as the supply of clean drinking water, development of mosques, and markets, etc. greatly benefitted the people.
•It was under Uthman that the Sassanian Empire was finally overthrown, and the whole of Persia was occupied by the Muslims.
IMPORTANCE OF THE CALIPHATE OF UTHMAN
• Through undertaking the project of bringing uniformity in the dialect of the Holy Quran, Uthman united the entire Muslim Lhnmah on a single script. Had this work not been carried out, it would have created rifts in the future Muslim community over the differences in dialect.
•The launch of the naval warfare during Uthman’s reign paved way for the Muslims to launch future naval attacks. It was a major development in Islamic history, making Muslims stronger in defending their shores, and facilitating the conquests of islands such as Crete and Cyprus.
• Uthman gave up his life for the cause of Islam rather than give shape to the idea of Muslims killing their Muslim brothers.